Content

SEND US FEEDBACK


We're always looking for ways to make Geoba.se better. Have an idea? See something that needs fixing? Let us know!

INTRODUCTION


 
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its... See More



GEOGRAPHY


Location:

 Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic Coordinates:

 56 00 N, 24 00 E

Area:

 Total: 65,300 sq km
Land: 62,680 sq km
Water: 2,620 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly larger than West Virginia

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1,574 km
Border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Coastline:

 90 km (Rank: 168)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate:

 Transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain:

 Lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

Natural Resources:

 Peat, arable land, amber

Land Use:

 Arable land: 44.81%
Permanent crops: 0.9%
Other: 54.29% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 13.4 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 24.5 cu km (2005)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 3.33 cu km/yr (78%/15%/7%)
Per capita: 971 cu m/yr (2003)

Environment - Current Issues:

 Contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

Back to the Top


PEOPLE AND SOCIETY


Nationality:

 Noun: Lithuanian(s)
Adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic Groups:

 Lithuanian 84%, Polish 6.1%, Russian 4.9%, Belarusian 1.1%, other or unspecified 3.9% (2009)

Languages:

 Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Religions:

 Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)

Population:

 3,535,547 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 13.8% (male 250,146/female 236,984)
15-64 years: 69.7% (male 1,211,707/female 1,254,195)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 201,358/female 381,157) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 40.1 years
Male: 37.5 years
Female: 42.7 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.276% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.29 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 11.33 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Urbanization:

 Urban population: 67% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: -0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 VILNIUS (capital) 546,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.057 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 13 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 6.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 7.49 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 75.34 years
Male: 70.48 years
Female: 80.48 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.25 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 7.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 3.664 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 6.84 beds/1,000 population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 1,200 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Obesity - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 19.7% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 4.7% of GDP (2007)

Literacy:

 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99.6%
Male: 99.6%
Female: 99.6% (2001 census)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 16 years
Male: 15 years
Female: 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 29.4%
Male: 35.2%
Female: 21.7% (2009)

Back to the Top


GOVERNMENT


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
Conventional short form: Lithuania
Local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
Local short form: Lietuva
Former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government Type:

 Parliamentary democracy

Capital:

 Name: Vilnius
Geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus

Independence:

 11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of Mindaugas, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution:

 Adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004

Legal System:

 Civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage:

 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)

Head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament

Election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1%, Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8%, Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2%, others 12.9%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members elected by popular vote, 70 elected by proportional representation; members to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, DP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, DP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4; note - seats by faction as of 25 January 2011 - TS-LKD 45, LSDP 24, TT 18, LCS and TPP 13, LRLS 13, Christian Party 10, DP 10, unaffiliated 7, vacant 1; note - TS-LKD, LRLS, LCS and TPP form the ruling coalition

Judicial Branch:

 Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Christian party [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Algimantas MATULEVICIUS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Gintautas BABRAVICIUS]; Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; Lithuanian Farmers' Union or LVLS or VLS [ Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]; Lithuanian People's Party (not yet officially established) [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]

International Organization Participation:

 Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Zygimantas PAVILIONIS
Chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
Embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
Mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
Telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland

National Symbols:

 Mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser)

National Anthem:

 Name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)
Lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

Note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; the anthem was written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; it was banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

Back to the Top


ECONOMY


Economy - Overview:

 Lithuania gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy. Lithuania's economy grew on average 8% per year for the four years prior to 2008 driven by exports and domestic demand. However, GDP plunged nearly 15% in 2009 - during the 2008-09 crisis the three former Soviet Baltic republics had the world's worst economic declines. In 2009, the government launched a high-profile campaign, led by Prime Minister KUBILIUS, to attract foreign investment and to develop export markets. The current account deficit, which had risen to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08, recovered to a surplus of 4% 2009 and 3.4% in 2010 in the wake of a cutback in imports to almost half the 2008 level. Nevertheless, economic growth was flat and unemployment continued upward to 17.9% in 2010.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $56.59 billion (2010 est.)
$55.84 billion (2009 est.)
$65.5 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $36.36 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.3% (2010 est.)
-14.7% (2009 est.)
2.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $16,000 (2010 est.)
$15,700 (2009 est.)
$18,400 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 3.4%
Industry: 27.9%
Services: 68.7% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 1.635 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 14%
Industry: 29.1%
Services: 56.9% (2005)

Unemployment Rate:

 17.8% (2010 est.)
13.7% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 4% (2003)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 2.6%
Highest 10%: 29.1% (2008)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 37.6 (2008)
34 (1999)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 16.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget:

 Revenues: $12.78 billion
Expenditures: $15.37 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 35.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -7.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 38.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
29.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.3% (2010 est.)
4.5% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 3% (31 December 2010 est.)
2.06% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 5.988% (31 December 2010 est.)
8.393% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $8.55 billion (January 2010)
$9.519 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $8.731 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$8.419 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $10.63 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$9.153 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $18.51 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$18.11 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $23.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$26.59 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $5.661 billion (31 December 2010)
$4.477 billion (31 December 2009)
$3.625 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish

Industries:

 Metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 6.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 12.27 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 16.5%
Hydro: 5.7%
Nuclear: 77.7%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 10.3 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 7.715 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 2.932 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 5,732 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 67,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 76,510 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 183,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 12 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 2.7 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 2.7 billion cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $667 million (2010 est.)
$1.648 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

 $20.82 billion (2010 est.)
$16.48 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Mineral products 22%, machinery and equipment 10%, chemicals 9%, textiles 7%, foodstuffs 7%, plastics 7%

Exports - Partners:

 Russia 15.7%, Germany 10.1%, Latvia 9.8%, Poland 7.9%, Netherlands 5.7%, Belarus 5.2%, Estonia 5.2%, UK 5% (2010)

Imports:

 $22.38 billion (2010 est.)
$17.64 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Imports - Partners:

 Russia 32.9%, Germany 11%, Poland 8.9%, Latvia 6.3%, Netherlands 4.4% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $6.837 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$6.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $35.84 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
$29.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $2.117 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$2.307 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $13.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$13.99 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Lithuanian Lita to Any Currency

Litai (LTL) per US dollar -
2.6637 (2010)
2.4787 (2009)
2.3251 (2008)
2.5362 (2007)
2.7498 (2006)

Back to the Top


COMMUNICATIONS


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 733,700 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 4.891 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access

Domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 140 per 100 persons

International: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2008)

Broadcast Media:

 Public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately-owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; large number of privately-owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; publicly-owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; large number of privately-owned commercial broadcasters, many with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 44 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2008)

Internet Country Code:

 .lt

Internet Hosts:

 1.17 million (2010)

Internet Users:

 1.964 million (2009)

Back to the Top


TRANSPORTATION


Airports:

 81 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 26
Over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 13 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 55
Over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 51 (2010)

Pipelines:

 Gas 1,695 km; refined products 114 km (2010)

Railways:

 Total: 1,767 km
Broad gauge: 1,745 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
Standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2010)

Roadways:

 Total: 81,030 km
Paved: 71,563 km (includes 309 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 9,467 km (2008)

Waterways:

 441 km (navigable year round) (2007)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 42
By type: cargo 22, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 2
Foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)
Registered in other countries: 29 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Belize 2, Comoros 3, Cook Islands 2, Norway 1, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Klaipeda
Oil terminals: Butinge oil terminal

Back to the Top


MILITARY


Military Branches:

 Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Ground Force (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Force (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Force (Karines Oro Pajegos), National Defense Volunteer Force (Krasto Apsaugos Savanoriu Pajegos) (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation suspended in 2008, all enlisted conscripts ending service by July 2009 (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 890,074
Females age 16-49: 875,780 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 669,111
Females age 16-49: 724,803 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 20,425
Female: 19,527 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Back to the Top


TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES


Disputes - International:

 Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Illicit Drugs:

 Transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

Back to the Top





Last Updated: December 2011

Lithuania Main Page World Factbook Main Page






IMAGES


Click any image to enlarge.


National Flag



(Lt) Lithuanian Lita (LTL)
Convert to Any Currency



Map



Locator Map