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 Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic Coordinates:

 43 44 N, 7 24 E


 Total: 2 sq km
Land: 2 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 About three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 4.4 km
Border countries: France 4.4 km


 4.1 km (Rank: 201)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm


 Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers


 Hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Land Use:

 Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Other: 100% (urban area) (2005)

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban

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 Noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
Adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic Groups:

 French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%


 French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque


 Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%


 30,539 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 12.3% (male 1,930/female 1,841)
15-64 years: 60.8% (male 9,317/female 9,249)
65 years and over: 26.9% (male 3,640/female 4,562) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 49.4 years
Male: 48.4 years
Female: 50.5 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.124% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 6.94 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.28 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.039 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 1.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 2.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 1.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 89.73 years
Male: 85.77 years
Female: 93.84 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.5 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 4.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 5.81 physicians/1,000 population (1995)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 100% of population
Total: 100% of population (2008)

Education Expenditures:

 1.2% of GDP (2004)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 18 years
Male: 18 years
Female: 17 years (2009)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
Conventional short form: Monaco
Local long form: Principaute de Monaco
Local short form: Monaco

Government Type:

 Constitutional monarchy


 Name: Monaco
Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 None; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo


 1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National Holiday:

 National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)


 17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002

Legal System:

 Civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

Head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER (since 29 March 2010)

Cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

Elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)

Election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2%, REM 40.5%, Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21, REM 3

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Monaco Together; Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM)

International Organization Participation:

 CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Gilles NOGHES
Chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 The US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

Flag Description:

 Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners

Note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National Anthem:

 Name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
Lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

Note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is much more commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions

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Economy - Overview:

 Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $976.3 million (2006 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Real Growth Rate:


GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $30,000 (2006 est.)

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0%
Industry: 4.9%
Services: 95.1% (2005)

Labor Force:


Note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2005 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 0% (2005)

Population Below Poverty Line:


Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%


 Revenues: $863 million
Expenditures: $920.6 million (2005 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.9% (2000)


 Tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial Production Growth Rate:


Electricity - Imports:

 NA kWh
note - electricity supplied by France


 $716.3 million (2005)

Note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France


 $916.1 million (2005)

Note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt - External:

 $18 billion (2000 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7198 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 34,100 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 26,300 (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers

Domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100%

International: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Broadcast Media:

 TV Monte-Carlo (TMC) operates a TV network; Radio Monte-Carlo has both an Italian-language and a French-language network; a few private radio stations operating (2008)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 1, FM 11, shortwave 1 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 5 (1998)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 23,621 (2010)

Internet Users:

 23,000 (2009)

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 1 (2010)


 Total: 77 km
Paved: 77 km (2008)

Merchant Marine:

 Registered in other countries: 68 (Bahamas 14, Bermuda 2, Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Liberia 10, Marshall Islands 21, Norway 1, Panama 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:


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Military Branches:

 No regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 5,749 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 4,629
Females age 16-49: 4,597 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 153
Female: 141 (2010 est.)

Military - Note:

 Defense is the responsibility of France

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Last Updated: December 2011

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