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The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May... See More



 Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic Coordinates:

 42 30 N, 19 18 E


 Total: 13,812 sq km
Land: 13,452 sq km
Water: 360 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 625 km
Border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km


 293.5 km (Rank: 136)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 12 nm
Continental shelf: defined by treaty


 Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland


 Highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

Natural Resources:

 Bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land Use:

 Arable land: 13.7%
Permanent crops: 1%
Other: 85.3%

Irrigated Land:

 22 sq km (2008)

Natural Hazards:

 Destructive earthquakes

Environment - Current Issues:

 Pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Strategic location along the Adriatic coast

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 Noun: Montenegrin(s)
Adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic Groups:

 Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12% (2003 census)


 Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)


 Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)


 661,807 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 50,060/female 52,823)
15-64 years: 71% (male 244,057/female 225,620)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 35,551/female 53,696) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 37.8 years
Male: 36.5 years
Female: 39.2 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.705% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 11 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)


 Urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 PODGORICA (capital) 144,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.072 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 15 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 3.98 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 96% of population
Total: 98% of population
Urban: 0% of population
Rural: 4% of population
Total: 2% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 96% of population
Rural: 86% of population
Total: 92% of population
Urban: 4% of population
Rural: 14% of population
Total: 8% of population (2008)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 2.2% (2006)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Montenegro
Local long form: none
Local short form: Crna Gora
Former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro

Government Type:



 Name: Podgorica
Geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak


 3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National Holiday:

 National Day, 13 July (1878)


 Approved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)

Legal System:

 Civil law

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)

Head of government: Prime Minister Igor LUKSIC (since 29 December 2010)

Cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet

Elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly

Election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.9%, Andrija MANDIC 19.6%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.6%, Srdan MILIC 11.9%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms; note - seats increased from 74 seats in 2006)

Elections: last held on 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)

Election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 51.94%, SNP 16.83%, NOVA 9.22%, PZP 6.03%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 15.98%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 48, SNP 16, NOVA 8, PZP 5, Albanian minority parties 4

Judicial Branch:

 Constitutional Court (five judges serve nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], Bosniak Party of BS [Rafet HUSOVIC], and Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSHA]; For a Different Montenegro (bloc) [Goran BATRICEVIC] (includes Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC] and Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]); FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; National Coalition (includes People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC] and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Srdjan DARMANOVIC
Chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
Telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
Consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Benjamin LOWENTHAL
Embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Mailing address: use embassy street address
Telephone: [382] 81 225 417
FAX: [382] 81 241 358

Flag Description:

 A red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is symbol of episcopal authority and harks back to the three and a half centuries that Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National Symbols:

 Double-headed eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
Lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

Note: adopted 2004; the anthem's music is based on a Montenegrin folk song

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Economy - Overview:

 Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, adopted the Deutchmark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization and signed a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in October 2007. The European Council granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the December 2010 session. Unemployment and regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector. The global financial crisis has had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $6.724 billion (2010 est.)
$6.653 billion (2009 est.)
$7.055 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $4.017 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.1% (2010 est.)
-5.7% (2009 est.)
6.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $10,100 (2010 est.)
$9,900 (2009 est.)
$10,400 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Labor Force:

 259,100 (2004)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 2%
Industry: 30%
Services: 68% (2004 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 14.7% (2007 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 7% (2007 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.6%
Highest 10%: 24.1% (2008)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 30 (2008)
30 (2003)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo); note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999
IDPs: 16,192 (ethnic conflict in 1999 and riots in 2004) (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 30.5% of GDP (2006 est.)


 Revenues: $NA
Expenditures: $NA

Public Debt:

 38% of GDP (2006)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 3.4% (2007)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 9.53% (31 December 2010 est.)
9.36% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $816.8 million (31 December 2008)
$1.172 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $1.406 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.446 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $816.8 million (31 December 2008)
$1.172 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.406 billion (31 December 2008)
$1.446 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $3.29 billion (31 December 2009)
$3.771 billion (31 December 2008)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $3.604 billion (31 December 2010)
$4.289 billion (31 December 2009)
$2.863 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep


 Steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Electricity - Production:

 2.66 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Consumption:

 2.474 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 4,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 3,149 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 NA cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$1.102 billion (2007 est.)


 $171.3 million (2003)

Exports - Partners:

 Italy 27.9%, Greece 21.6%, Slovenia 11.3%, Hungary 8.5%, US 7.6%, Egypt 4.8% (2009)


 $601.7 million (2003)

Imports - Partners:

 Italy 17.2%, Slovenia 14.4%, Germany 9.9%, China 7.8%, Austria 7.7%, Russia 6.1%, Greece 4%, Hungary 4% (2009)

Debt - External:

 $650 million (2006)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Euro to Any Currency

Euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.72 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 169,500 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 1.17 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites

Domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing

International: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system

Broadcast Media:

 State-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial television networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; roughly a dozen privately-owned TV broadcasters operate networks nationally, regionally, and locally; in addition to the 2 state-owned national radio networks, roughly 50 privately-owned radio stations and networks broadcast (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 31 (station frequency types NA) (2004)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 13 (2004)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 6,247 (2010)

Internet Users:

 280,000 (2009)

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 5 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)


 1 (2010)


 Total: 250 km
Standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 7,624 km
Paved: 5,097 km
Unpaved: 2,527 km (2010)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 2
By type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
Registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 2, Slovakia 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:


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Military Branches:

 Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 Compulsory national military service abolished August 2006

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 149,159
Females age 16-49: 131,823 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 3,120
Female: 3,677 (2010 est.)

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Last Updated: December 2011

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