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The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along... See More



 Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic Coordinates:

 44 00 N, 21 00 E


 Total: 77,474 sq km
Land: 77,474 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 2,026 km
Border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km


 0 km (landlocked) (Rank: 236)

Maritime Claims:

 None (landlocked)


 In the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)


 Extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
Highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

Natural Resources:

 Oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land Use:

 Arable land: NA
Permanent crops: NA
Other: NA

Irrigated Land:

 890 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)

Natural Hazards:

 Destructive earthquakes

Environment - Current Issues:

 Air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

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 Noun: Serb(s)
Adjective: Serbian

Ethnic Groups:

 Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)


 Serbian (official) 88.3%, Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)

Note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina


 Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)


 7,310,555 (July 2011 est.)

Note: does not include the population of Kosovo

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 567,757/female 532,604)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,503,490/female 2,500,949)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 493,436/female 712,319) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 41.3 years
Male: 39.6 years
Female: 43.1 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.467% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 9.19 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 13.85 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 56% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 BELGRADE (capital) 1.115 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.065 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and above: 0.7 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 6.52 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 7.53 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 74.32 years
Male: 71.49 years
Female: 77.34 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.4 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 9.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 2.035 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 5.4 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 99% of population
Rural: 98% of population
Total: 99% of population
Urban: 1% of population
Rural: 2% of population
Total: 1% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 96% of population
Rural: 88% of population
Total: 92% of population
Urban: 4% of population
Rural: 12% of population
Total: 8% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 0.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 6,400 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
Vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever

Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds(2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 1.8% (2006)

Education Expenditures:

 4.7% of GDP (2008)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 96.4%
Male: 98.9%
Female: 94.1% (2003 census)

Note: includes Montenegro

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 14 years
Male: 13 years
Female: 14 years (2009)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 42.5%
Male: 31%
Female: 41.3% (2008)

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Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
Conventional short form: Serbia
Local long form: Republika Srbija
Local short form: Srbija
Former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government Type:



 Name: Belgrade (Beograd)
Geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
Time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative Divisions:

 167 municipalities (opcstine, singular - opcstina)

Serbia Proper: Belgrade City (Beograd): Barajevo, Cukarica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladenovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zvezdara; Bor: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevo: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Grad Nis: Crveni Krst, Mediana, Niska Banja, Palilula, Pantelej; Jablanica: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medveda, Vlasotince; Kolubara: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macva: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravica: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisava: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinja: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirot: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavlje: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravlje: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rekovac, Svilajnac; Rasina: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raska: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadija: Arandelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplica: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitorada; Zajecar: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zajecar; Zlatibor: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice

Vojvodina Autonomous Province: South Backa: Bac, Backa Palanka, Backi Petrovac, Becej, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Srobobran, Temerin, Titel, Vrbas, Zabalj; South Banat: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; North Backa: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; North Banat: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Central Banat: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Srem: Indija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; West Backa: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor


 5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National Holiday:

 National Day, 15 February


 Adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006

Legal System:

 Civil law system

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004)

Head of government: Prime Minister Mirko CVETKOVIC (since 7 July 2008)

Cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet

Elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the National Assembly

Election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected according to party lists to serve four-year terms)

Elections: last held on 11 May 2008 (next to be held in May 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - For a European Serbia coalition 38.4%, SRS 29.5%, DSS-NS 11.6%, SPS-led coalition 7.6%, LPD 5.2%, other 7.7%; seats by party - For a European Serbia coalition 102, SRS 57, DSS-NS 30, SNS 21, SPS-led coalition 20, LDP 13, other 7

Judicial Branch:

 Courts of general jurisdiction (municipal courts, district courts, Appellate Courts, the Supreme Court of Cassation); courts of special jurisdiction (commercial courts, the High Commercial Court, the High Magistrates Court, the Administrative Court)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Coalition for Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement for Democratic Progress or LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; People's Party or NS [Maja GOJKOVIC]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Sandzak Democratic Party or SDP [Resad HODZIC]; Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), with Dragan TODOROVIC as acting leader]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Vladimir PETROVIC
Chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Mary WARLICK
Embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
Mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
Telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230

Flag Description:

 Three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; a white Cyrillic "C" in each quarter stands for the phrase "Only Unity Saves the Serbs"; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

Note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National Symbols:

 Double-headed eagle

National Anthem:

 Name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
Lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO

Note: adopted 1904; the song was originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries

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Economy - Overview:

 MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Belgrade has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, including telecommunications and small- and medium-size firms. It has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term viability have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Serbia, however, is slowly recovering from the crisis. Economic growth in 2010 was a modest 1.7%, following a 3.1% contraction in 2009, but exports rose by over 16% and manufacturing output increased 3.2%. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia signed an augmented $4 billion Stand By Arrangement with the IMF in May 2009 that expires in April 2011. IMF conditions on Serbia constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy, while Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Serbia adopted a new long-term economic growth plan in 2010 that calls for a quadrupling of exports over ten years and heavy investments in basic infrastructure. Serbia is still a transitional economy with unfinished privatization and incomplete structural reforms. Major challenges ahead include: high government expenditures for salaries, pensions and unemployment; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; and stagnant levels of foreign direct investment. Privatization revenues have fallen precipitously in recent years, while a high percentage of economic activity remains in the hands of the state. Other serious challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include a strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and a generous package of incentives for foreign investments.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $80.1 billion (2010 est.)
$78.72 billion (2009 est.)
$81.26 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $38.71 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 1.8% (2010 est.)
-3.1% (2009 est.)
5.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $10,900 (2010 est.)
$10,700 (2009 est.)
$11,000 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 12.3%
Industry: 22.5%
Services: 65.2% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 3.25 million (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 23.9%
Industry: 20.5%
Services: 55.6% (October 2009)

Unemployment Rate:

 17.2% (2010 est.)
16.6% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 8.8% (2010 est.)

Distribution of Family Income - Gini Index:

 28.2 (2008)
30 (2003)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 71,111 (Croatia); 27,414 (Bosnia and Herzegovina); 206,000 (Kosovo), note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999 (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 19.2% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $17.16 billion
Expenditures: $19.07 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 44.3% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -4.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 42.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
34.8% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 6.3% (2010 est.)
8.4% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 12% (17 January 2011)
9.92% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 12.43% (31 December 2010 est.)
11.8% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $3.69 billion (31 December 2009)
$3.831 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $14.11 billion (31 December 2009)
$11.95 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $3.195 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.873 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $17.16 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$18.07 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $21.79 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$19.51 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $12.37 billion (24 January 2011)
$11.52 billion (31 December 2009)
$12.17 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, raspberries; beef, pork, milk


 Base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 2.4% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 35.9 billion kWh (2010)

Electricity - Consumption:

 34.1 billion kWh (2010)

Electricity - Exports:

 1.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 770 million kWh (2010)

Oil - Production:

 14,310 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 88,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 4,815 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 78,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 77.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 356 million cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 2.35 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 2 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$2.791 billion (2010 est.)
-$2.412 billion (2009 est.)


 $9.809 billion (2010 est.)
$8.368 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition

Exports - Partners:

 Italy 11.5%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 11.2%, Germany 10.5%, Montenegro 8.4%, Romania 6.3%, Russia 5.4%, Macedonia 4.9%, Slovenia 4.4% (2010 est.)


 $16.14 billion (2010 est.)
$15.03 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Partners:

 Russia 12.8%, Germany 10.6%, Italy 8.5%, China 7.2%, Hungary 4.9% (2010 est.)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $13.31 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$15.22 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $33.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$33.38 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $22.42 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert to Any Currency

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
79.979 (2010)
67.634 (2009)
62.9 (2008)
54.5 (2007)
59.98 (2006)

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Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 3.11 million (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 9.915 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2009

Domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007

International: country code - 381 (2009)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 308 (station frequency types NA) (2009)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 138 (2009)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 528,253 (2010)

Internet Users:

 4.107 million (2009)

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 29 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 11
Over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
Under 914 m: 8 (2010)


 2 (2010)


 Total: 3,379 km
Standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2010)


 Total: 41,913 km
Paved: 26,007 km
Unpaved: 15,906 km (2009)


 587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)

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Military Branches:

 Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; 6-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2011)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,395,426
Females age 16-49: 1,356,415 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 43,945
Female: 41,080 (2010 est.)

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Disputes - International:

 Serbia with several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Illicit Drugs:

 Transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

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Last Updated: December 2011

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