We're always looking for ways to make better. Have an idea? See something that needs fixing? Let us know!


French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights... See More



 Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Geographic Coordinates:

 8 00 N, 1 10 E


 Total: 56,785 sq km
Land: 54,385 sq km
Water: 2,400 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land Boundaries:

 Total: 1,647 km
Border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km


 56 km (Rank: 181)

Maritime Claims:

 Territorial sea: 30 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


 Tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


 Gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural Resources:

 Phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land Use:

 Arable land: 44.2%
Permanent crops: 2.11%
Other: 53.69% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 70 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 14.7 cu km (2001)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
Per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - Current Issues:

 Deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 The country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Back to the Top



 Noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Togolese

Ethnic Groups:

 African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%


 French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)


 Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%


 6,771,993 (July 2011 est.)

Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 40.9% (male 1,387,537/female 1,381,040)
15-64 years: 56% (male 1,878,114/female 1,912,132)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 92,689/female 120,481) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 19.3 years
Male: 19 years
Female: 19.5 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 2.762% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 35.58 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 7.96 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 43% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 3.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 LOME (capital) 1.593 million (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 350 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 51.48 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 58.43 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 44.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 62.71 years
Male: 60.19 years
Female: 65.3 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 4.69 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 5.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 0.053 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital Bed Density:

 0.85 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 87% of population
Rural: 41% of population
Total: 60% of population
Urban: 13% of population
Rural: 59% of population
Total: 40% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 24% of population
Rural: 3% of population
Total: 12% of population
Urban: 76% of population
Rural: 97% of population
Total: 88% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 3.2% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 120,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 7,700 (2009 est.)

Major Infectious Diseases:

 Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies

Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds(2009)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 20.5% (2008)

Education Expenditures:

 4.6% of GDP (2009)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 60.9%
Male: 75.4%
Female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 10 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 8 years (2007)

Back to the Top


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Togolese Republic
Conventional short form: Togo
Local long form: Republique togolaise
Local short form: none
Former: French Togoland

Government Type:

 Republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule


 Name: Lome
Geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
Time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes


 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 27 April (1960)


 Adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992

Legal System:

 Customary law system

International Law Organization Participation:

 Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);

Head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president

Election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%

Legislative Branch:

 Unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

Election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4

Judicial Branch:

 Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Kadangha Limbiya BARIKI
Chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS
Embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
Mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300
Telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501

Flag Description:

 Five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

Note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National Anthem:

 Name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
Lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

Note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Back to the Top


Economy - Overview:

 This small, sub-Saharan economy suffers from anemic economic growth and depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is on track with its IMF Extended Credit Facility and reached a HIPC debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Economic growth prospects remain marginal due to declining cotton production and underinvestment in phosphate mining.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $5.974 billion (2010 est.)
$5.778 billion (2009 est.)
$5.596 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $3.194 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 3.4% (2010 est.)
3.2% (2009 est.)
2.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $900 (2010 est.)
$900 (2009 est.)
$900 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 46.1%
Industry: 23.6%
Services: 34.1% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 2.595 million (2007)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 65%
Industry: 5%
Services: 30% (1998 est.)

Unemployment Rate:


Population Below Poverty Line:

 32% (1989 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: 3.3%
Highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons:

 Refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2007)

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 18% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $653 million
Expenditures: $703.8 million (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 20.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -1.6% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 1.4% (2010 est.)
2% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 2.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:


Stock of Money:

 $712.6 million (31 December 2008)
$624.9 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $414.9 million (31 December 2008)
$383.9 million (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $777.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$818.9 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $1.267 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$1.354 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $836.4 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$894.3 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - Products:

 Coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish


 Phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 2.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 156.9 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 98.7%
Hydro: 1.3%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 671.9 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 666 million kWh
note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2008 est.)

Oil - Production:

 0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 23,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 15,900 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 -$244 million (2010 est.)
-$223 million (2009 est.)


 $840 million (2010 est.)
$826 million (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Exports - Partners:

 India 12.7%, Germany 12.2%, Benin 9.8%, Ghana 9.7%, Burkina Faso 9.1%, China 5.1%, Belgium 4.9%, Niger 4.6%, Nigeria 4.3% (2010)


 $1.292 billion (2010 est.)
$1.205 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - Partners:

 China 48%, France 8.3%, US 6.1% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $669.4 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$703.2 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $NA (31 December 2010)
$1.64 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert CFA Franc (BCEAO) to Any Currency

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
482.71 (2007)
522.59 (2006)

Back to the Top


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 213,800 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 2.452 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system

Domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating

International: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie

Broadcast Media:

 2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are obtainable (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 860 (2010)

Internet Users:

 356,300 (2009)

Back to the Top



 8 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 2 (2010)


 Total: 568 km
Narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)


 Total: 7,520 km
Paved: 2,376 km
Unpaved: 5,144 km (2007)


 50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2009)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 53
By type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 40, chemical tanker 2, container 2, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
Foreign-owned: 23 (China 2, Greece 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 5, Turkey 4, UAE 1, UK 3) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Kpeme, Lome

Back to the Top


Military Branches:

 Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Ground Forces, Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2011)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2011)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,577,572
Females age 16-49: 1,589,715 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 1,104,536
Females age 16-49: 1,158,061 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 74,036
Female: 73,515 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

Back to the Top


Disputes - International:

 In 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Illicit Drugs:

 Transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

Back to the Top

Last Updated: December 2011

Togo Main Page World Factbook Main Page


Click any image to enlarge.

National Flag

Convert to Any Currency


Locator Map