We're always looking for ways to make better. Have an idea? See something that needs fixing? Let us know!



 Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic Coordinates:

 11 00 N, 61 00 W


 Total: 5,128 sq km
Land: 5,128 sq km
Water: 0 sq km

Area - Comparative:

 Slightly smaller than Delaware

Land Boundaries:

 0 km


 362 km (Rank: 127)

Maritime Claims:

 Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin


 Tropical; rainy season (June to December)


 Mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation Extremes:

 Lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural Resources:

 Petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land Use:

 Arable land: 14.62%
Permanent crops: 9.16%
Other: 76.22% (2005)

Irrigated Land:

 70 sq km (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources:

 3.8 cu km (2000)

Freshwater Withdrawal:

 Total: 0.31 cu km/yr (68%/26%/6%)
Per capita: 237 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural Hazards:

 Outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Environment - Current Issues:

 Water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - International Agreements:

 Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - Note:

 Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

Back to the Top



 Noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
Adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic Groups:

 Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)


 English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese


 Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 25.8% (Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4%), Hindu 22.5%, Muslim 5.8%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)


 1,227,505 (July 2011 est.)

Age Structure:

 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 122,044/female 116,859)
15-64 years: 72.1% (male 455,148/female 429,990)
65 years and over: 8.4% (male 44,439/female 59,025) (2011 est.)

Median Age:

 Total: 33.1 years
Male: 32.6 years
Female: 33.6 years (2011 est.)

Population Growth Rate:

 -0.087% (2011 est.)

Birth Rate:

 14.35 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death Rate:

 8.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net Migration Rate:

 -6.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)


 Urban population: 14% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major Cities - Population:

 PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 57,000 (2009)

Sex Ratio:

 At birth: 1.028 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate:

 55 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)

Infant Mortality Rate:

 Total: 27.69 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 28.93 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 26.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life Expectancy At Birth:

 Total population: 71.37 years
Male: 68.51 years
Female: 74.3 years (2011 est.)

Total Fertility Rate:

 1.72 children born/woman (2011 est.)

Health Expenditures:

 5.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians Density:

 1.175 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital Bed Density:

 2.5 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking Water Source:

 Urban: 98% of population
Rural: 93% of population
Total: 34% of population
Urban: 2% of population
Rural: 7% of population
Total: 6% of population (2008)

Sanitation Facility Access:

 Urban: 92% of population
Rural: 92% of population
Total: 92% of population
Urban: 8% of population
Rural: 8% of population
Total: 8% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate:

 1.5% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - People Living With HIV/AIDS:

 15,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - Deaths:

 Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Children Under 5 - Underweight:

 4.4% (2000)


 Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.6%
Male: 99.1%
Female: 98% (2003 est.)

Average Years of Schooling:

 Total: 12 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 12 years (2007)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24:

 Total: 10.5%
Male: 8.8%
Female: 12.9% (2008)

People - Note:

 In 2007, the government of Trinidad and Tobago estimated the population to be 1.3 million

Back to the Top


Country Name:

 Conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Government Type:

 Parliamentary democracy


 Name: Port of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
Time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative Divisions:

 9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, 1 ward

Regional corporations: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco

City corporations: Port of Spain, San Fernando

Borough corporations: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin

Ward: Tobago


 31 August 1962 (from the UK)

National Holiday:

 Independence Day, 31 August (1962)


 August 1, 1976

Legal System:

 English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International Law Organization Participation:

 Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


 18 years of age; universal

Executive Branch:

 Chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)

Head of government: Prime Minister Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR (since 26 May 2010)

Cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament

Elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 February 2008 (next to be held by February 2013); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives

Election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA

Legislative Branch:

 Bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the President, 6 by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Elections: House of Representatives - last held on 24 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)

Election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - NA; seats by party - UNC 21, PNM 12, COP 6, TOP 2

Note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2005; seats by party - PNM 11, DAC 1

Judicial Branch:

 Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)

Political Parties and Leaders:

 Congress of the People or COP [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK]; United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:

 Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]

International Organization Participation:


Diplomatic Representation in the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Neil PARSAN
Chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
Consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic Representation From the US:

 Chief of mission: Ambassador Beatrice W. WELTERS
Embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
Mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
Telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905

Flag Description:

 Red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side; the colors represent the elements of earth, water, and fire; black stands for the wealth of the land and the dedication of the people; white symbolizes the sea surrounding the islands, the purity of the country's aspirations, and equality; red symbolizes the warmth and energy of the sun, the vitality of the land, and the courage and friendliness of its people

National Symbols:

 Scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad); cocrico (bird of Tobago)

National Anthem:

 Name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"
Lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE

Note: adopted 1962; the song was originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; it was adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962

Back to the Top


Economy - Overview:

 Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses and has one of the highest growth rates and per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8%, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then and contracted about 3.5% in 2009, before rising more than 2% in 2010. Growth has been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas (LNG), petrochemicals, and steel. Additional petrochemical, aluminum, and plastics projects are in various stages of planning. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources but it also supplies manufactured goods, notably food products and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. The country is also a regional financial center, and tourism is a growing sector, although it is not as important domestically as it is to many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus. The previous MANNING administration benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues which will challenge the new government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):

 $26.1 billion (2010 est.)
$26.09 billion (2009 est.)
$27.05 billion (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):

 $20.59 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - Real Growth Rate:

 0% (2010 est.)
-3.5% (2009 est.)
2.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - Per Capita (PPP):

 $21,200 (2010 est.)
$21,200 (2009 est.)
$22,000 (2008 est.)

Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - Composition By Sector:

 Agriculture: 0.4%
Industry: 58.8%
Services: 40.8% (2010 est.)

Labor Force:

 634,300 (2010 est.)

Labor Force - By Occupation:

 Agriculture: 3.8%
Manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 12.8%
Construction and utilities: 20.4%
Services: 62.9% (2007 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

 6.4% (2010 est.)
5.8% (2009 est.)

Population Below Poverty Line:

 17% (2007 est.)

Household Income / Consumption By Share:

 Lowest 10%: NA%
Highest 10%: NA%

Investment (Gross Fixed):

 11.6% of GDP (2010 est.)


 Revenues: $6.6 billion
Expenditures: $7.199 billion (2010 est.)

Taxes and Other Revenues:

 32.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

Budget Surplus / Deficit:

 -2.9% of GDP (2010 est.)

Public Debt:

 29.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
26.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):

 10.5% (2010 est.)
7% (2009 est.)

Central Bank Discount Rate:

 4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
7.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:

 9.3% (31 December 2010 est.)
11.9% (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Money:

 $3.047 billion (31 December 2008)
$2.646 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Quasi Money:

 $6.795 billion (31 December 2008)
$5.707 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of Narrow Money:

 $4.577 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$4.182 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Broad Money:

 $13.94 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$12.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Domestic Credit:

 $5.75 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.557 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market Value of Publicly Traded Shares:

 $12.16 billion (31 December 2010)
$11.15 billion (31 December 2009)
$12.16 billion (31 December 2008)

Agriculture - Products:

 Cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry


 Petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles

Industrial Production Growth Rate:

 2.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - Production:

 7.419 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Production By Source:

 Fossil fuel: 99.8%
Hydro: 0%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0.2% (2001)

Electricity - Consumption:

 7.246 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - Exports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - Imports:

 0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - Production:

 144,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Consumption:

 41,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - Exports:

 242,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Imports:

 95,240 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - Proven Reserves:

 728.3 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural Gas - Production:

 42.38 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Consumption:

 21.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Exports:

 20.41 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Imports:

 0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural Gas - Proven Reserves:

 408.2 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance:

 $3.944 billion (2010 est.)
$1.614 billion (2009 est.)


 $12.72 billion (2010 est.)
$9.175 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - Commodities:

 Petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers

Exports - Partners:

 US 44.2%, Spain 6.1%, Jamaica 5.1% (2010)


 $8.187 billion (2010 est.)
$6.973 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - Commodities:

 Mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals

Imports - Partners:

 US 27.8%, Russia 11.5%, Brazil 7.8%, Colombia 6.9%, Gabon 4.3%, China 4.2%, Canada 4.2% (2010)

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold:

 $9.659 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$9.246 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - External:

 $4.289 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.857 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - Abroad:

 $3.829 billion (2007)

Stock of Direct Foreign Investment - At Home:

 $102 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$12.44 billion (2007)

Exchange Rates:

 Convert Trinidad & Tobago Dollar to Any Currency

Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
6.3337 (2010)
6.3099 (2009)
6.2896 (2008)
6.3275 (2007)
6.3107 (2006)

Back to the Top


Telephones - Main Lines In Use:

 293,300 (2010)

Telephones - Cellular:

 1.894 million (2010)

Telephone System:

 General assessment: excellent international service; good local service

Domestic: mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 185 telephones per 100 persons

International: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Broadcast Media:

 5 TV networks each broadcasting on multiple stations; one of the networks is state-owned; multiple cable TV subscription service providers; multiple radio networks, one state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations:

 AM 2, FM 28, shortwave 0 (2008)

Television Broadcast Stations:

 6 (2005)

Internet Country Code:


Internet Hosts:

 168,876 (2010)

Internet Users:

 593,000 (2009)

Back to the Top



 6 (2010)

Airports - With Paved Runways:

 Total: 3
Over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - With Unpaved Runways:

 Total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 2 (2010)


 Gas 671 km; oil 334 km (2010)


 Total: 8,320 km
Paved: 4,252 km
Unpaved: 4,068 km (2001)

Merchant Marine:

 Total: 6
By type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1
Registered in other countries: 2 (Bahamas 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and Terminals:

 Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough
Oil terminals: Galeota Point terminal

Back to the Top


Military Branches:

 Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (2010)

Military Service Age and Obligation:

 18 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription (2010)

Manpower Available For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 341,764
Females age 16-49: 317,899 (2010 est.)

Manpower Fit For Military Service:

 Males age 16-49: 269,824
Females age 16-49: 261,735 (2010 est.)

Manpower Reaching Militarily Significant Age Annually:

 Male: 8,164
Female: 7,503 (2010 est.)

Military Expenditures:

 0.3% of GDP (2006)

Back to the Top


Disputes - International:

 Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well

Illicit Drugs:

 Transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

Back to the Top

Last Updated: December 2011

Trinidad and Tobago Main Page World Factbook Main Page


Click any image to enlarge.

National Flag

(TT$) Trinidad & Tobago Dollar (TTD)
Convert to Any Currency


Locator Map